In-Vessel Composting


In-vessel composting (IVC) is a means of composting large volumes of biodegradable waste i.e. green and organic waste that mainly originates from households, (food and green waste) as well as parks and gardens. The processing of the waste occurs within a series of enclosed tunnels, which are ventilated allowing the contents to degrade within a controlled environment (temperature and humidity).

Air circulation is generally metered via buried tubes that allow fresh air to be injected under low pressure, with the exhaust being extracted through a bio filter. Temperature and moisture is monitored using probes located in the organic matter to allow the control of the parameters required to optimise aerobic decomposition conditions.

After a predetermined time the tunnels are emptied, usually by a mechanical loader, with the remaining organic material being allowed to further mature for a minimum of 21 days in organised rows known as windrows. The resultant material is then screened to remove any debris or woody material which has not broken down in the composting process. The final product is nutrient rich saleable compost for use in domestic and commercial applications.


Both the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and the Animal By-Products Regulations 1774/2002 have encouraged and increased the use of this type of waste management.

In-vessel composting can dramatically reduce the amount of organic waste going to landfill. It also ensures that there is no contamination caused by the mis-handling of animal by-products thus preventing the spread of disease.

The European Directive 1999/31/EC or the Landfill of Waste (known as the Landfill Directive) has the aim of preventing or reducing as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the land-filling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.

The Animal By-Products Regulations 2005 (APBR) Regulation (EC) (No 1774/2002) aims to “control the transport, processing, use and disposal of animal by-products. To protect animal and public health, the Regulation requires that animal by-products are processed or disposed of in approved premises, and specifies the standards to which those premises must operate if they are to be approved.”

What will PM PROjEN do?

PM PROjEN are experts in the field of Waste Management, through their work with leading waste management organisations they have developed a generic modular design package which is fully compliant with the requirements of the Animal By-Products Regulations. The fact that the waste is being recycled means the design satisfies the land fill directive too.

Depending on your needs, PM PROjEN can either provide a modular designed installation through the use of off-the-shelf equipment to minimise build time and cost. Or if required their expert engineers will design you a bespoke facility in line with your business requirements.


  • Confidence that design and installation will comply with current legislation
  • Design will ensure minimum water consumption (re-use of leachate)
  • Robust design – appropriate to large scale machinery operations
  • Most appropriate options – cost/ time effective
  • Ensure minimal disruption to ongoing operations
  • Ensure smooth integration of the new plant
  • Ensure facility is designed and built in accordance with the CDM regulations.